This course enables students to enhance their understanding of concepts in biology, chemistry, earth and space science, and physics, and of the interrelationships between science, technology, society, and the environment. Students are also given opportunities to further develop their scientific investigation skills. Students will plan and conduct investigations and develop their understanding of scientific theories related to the connections between cells and systems in animals and plants; chemical reactions, with a particular focus on acid–base reactions; forces that affect climate and climate change; and the interaction of light and matter.


Overall Curriculum Expectations

By the end of this course, students will:

Scientific Investigation Skills and Career Exploration

  1. Demonstrate scientific investigation skills (related to both inquiry and research) in the four areas of skills (initiating and planning, performing, and recording, analyzing, and interpreting, and communicating)
  2. Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study, and identify scientists, including Canadians, who have made contributions to those fields.

Biology: Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things

  1. Evaluate the importance of medical and other technological developments related to systems biology and analyze their societal and ethical implications.
  2. Investigate cell division, cell specialization, organs, and systems in animals and plants, using research and inquiry skills, including various laboratory techniques.
  3. Demonstrate an understanding of the hierarchical organization of cells, from tissues, to organs, to systems in animals and plants.

Chemistry: Chemical Reactions

  1. Analyse a variety of safety and environmental issues associated with chemical reactions, including the ways in which chemical reactions can be applied to address environmental challenges.
  2. Investigate, through inquiry, the characteristics of chemical reactions.
  3. Demonstrate an understanding of the general principles of chemical reactions, and various ways to represent them.

Earth and Space Science: Climate Change

  1. Analyse some of the effects of climate change around the world and assess the effectiveness of initiatives that attempt to address the issue of climate change.
  2. Investigate various natural and human factors that influence Earth’s climate and climate change.
  3. Demonstrate an understanding of natural and human factors, including the greenhouse effect, that influence Earth’s climate and contribute to climate change.

Physics: Light and Geometric Optics

  1. Evaluate the effectiveness of technological devices and procedures designed to make use of light and assess their social benefits.
  2. Investigate, through inquiry, the properties of light, and predict its behaviour, particularly with respect to reflection in plane and curved mirrors and refraction in converging lenses.
  3. Demonstrate an understanding of various characteristics and properties of light, particularly with respect to reflection in mirrors and reflection and refraction in lenses.

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